About Instruments Today No. 236
Dr. Julie Y.H. Chan, Chair Professor of Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-It is More Blessed to Give than to Receive.
Innovative Brain Science and Applications
Chi-Kuang Sun, Bhaskar Jyoti Borah, Yao-Chen Tseng, Kuo-Chuan Wang, Huan-Chih Wang, Hsin-Yi Huang, Koping Chang, Yi-Hua Liao
Currently, frozen section (FS) pathology, the global standard for intraoperative tumor assessment (ITA), that involves cryosectioning, susceptible to artifacts, consumes up to 30 minutes per round, and eventually limits number of ITAs in a critical surgery. In order to reach more efficient and artifact-free tissue processing and obtain digital images with ultra-high resolution, the technology implements true-H&E rapid whole-mount tissue staining (the-RTS) method, conducts optical imaging via mesoscale nonlinear optical gigascope (mNLOG), and help solve this urgent problem. Acquiring real-time centimeter-scale large-area-stitching H&E images with sub-micron resolution, our technology can preserve the true surgical margin and histological details without causing any artifact. Remarkably, with the speed that at least 4 times faster than frozen-biopsy, rapid fresh digital-pathology secures an excellent accuracy of 100%, that is indeed comparable to the ultimate solution of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy in the clinical trial for brain tumor assessment by pathologists.
Application of Graphene Neural Probe for Deep Brain Stimulation and Multidimensional Neural Activity Electrical Signal Sensing
You-Yin Chen, San-Yuan Chen, Ssu-Ju Li, Ching-Wen Chang, Yao-Wen Liang
In light of the burgeoning developments in neuroscience research, and with the aim of reducing the lag time between diagnosis and treatment, our team has leveraged nanomaterials, specifically “graphene,” to engineer neural probes. These probes empower us to delve into the intricacies of brain functioning with innovative precision and depth, all while identifying novel therapeutic approaches. This article will elucidate the unique advantages of graphene neural probes, present the outcomes achieved in animal experiments, and outline future prospects.
Current Progress and Challenges in Developing Closed-loop Deep Brain Stimulator for Parkinson’s Disease
Hsiao-Chun Lin, Yi-Hui Wu, Ming-Dou Ker
Parkinson’s disease is a common neurodegenerative disease in the elderly, which mainly causes movement disorders and reduces the patient’s quality of life. Levodopa is the gold-standard drug for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but long-term use may cause unbearable side effects. Therefore, the surgical treatment, i.e. deep brain stimulation (DBS), can be considered. Conventional DBS is an open-loop design, which may cause side effects due to overstimulation. Closed-loop DBS can improve the disadvantages of conventional DBS by detecting abnormal biomarkers related to symptoms in the brain and performing electrical stimulation on demand. This article describes the current progress in developing closed-loop DBS and the challenges faced during the development.
Chen-Yuan Kuo, Kun-Hsien Chou, Ching-Po Lin
The human brain comprises a complex connectome of neural networks and involves various cognition that undergoes dynamic processes of aging and disease, culminating in brain aging and cognitive decline. Therefore, providing individual brain biomarkers is an important goal. Brain age is a novel brain biological signature and draws its foundation from brain imaging. Huge extensive brain imaging databases in conjunction with advanced artificial intelligence algorithenable the decoding of brain signatures and theirchronological age, facilitating the prediction of an individual's brain age. The predictive brain age can serve as a descriptor for the trajectory of an individual's brain aging. In the future, it holds promise for application in evaluating the status of an individual's brain health, assessing potential risks for disease development, and even guiding interventions related to cognitive training.
Po-Chun Chu, Chen-Syuan Huang, Hao-Li Liu
Focus ultrasound (FUS) has become a potentially promising non-invasive neuromodulation technology. This article overviews the principles of techniques of ultrasound, the mechanisms of ultrasound neuromodulation and its applications in preclinical and clinical studies, and explores the feasibility of neuromodulation techniques in clinical treatment of brain diseases. In the field of brain disorders, the research team has focused on the treatment of epilepsy. From preclinical to clinical trials, the ultrasound was found to suppress chronic epileptic signals and reduce the epileptic behavior. In the end of the article, the limitations of ultrasound applying in neuromodulation would be discussed to ensure the development of ultrasound neuromodulation for the benefit of the world.
The Application of In-plane Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction to the Crystal Analysis of 2-dimensional Material
Wei-Lin Wang, Kun-An Chiu, Wei-Chun Chen, Chien-Nan Hsiao, Fong-Zhi Chen
The mechanism of ordinary X-ray diffraction analyses is easily limited by the geometric structure of popular 2-dimensional (2D) materials. The in-plane grazing incidence diffraction (IP GID) technique of an X-ray diffraction spectrometer installed with a non-coplanar detector arm is hereby utilized to analyze the crystal properties of 2D tungsten disulfides (WS2). The practical analysis of 2D WS2 films deposited on (001) Al2O3 substrates is carried out and discussed through various IP GID modes including θ-2θ scan mode and annular phi-angle scan mode. In IP GID analyses, θ-2θ scan mode is used to confirm the crystal structure of 2D WS2 material and annular phi-angle scan mode is chosen to define the crystal orientation relationship between 2D WS2 and its substrate. Both X-ray examination modes are verified to be capable of analyzing material crystal structure and crystal orientation relationship. The final geometric relationship of 2D material and its substrate can be efficiently built up.
Cancer Conqueror, Precision Medical Technology: Current Status and Future Prospects of THOR-BNCT Development in Taiwan
Jia-Jun Liu, Chi-Shuo Chen, Meng-Ling Chiang, Hong-Ming Liu
Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a treatment that uses the boron neutron capture reaction to target and destroy tumor cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. The efficient delivery of boron drugs and the quality of neutron beams are both critical components in determining the effectiveness of BNCT. In Taiwan, the THOR-BNCT reactor is utilized to generate epithermal neutron beams, which have demonstrated significant contributions to clinical treatment and research fields. BNCT has already achieved successful results in treating patients with brain tumors and recurrent head and neck cancer, and its potential to treat a wide range of indications is expected to benefit more patients in the near future.