About Instruments Today No. 234


Success is Not Often Won at the Starting Line, But at the Turning Point

Claire Lin

Instrumentation Cyber Security

Special Issue Introduction of “Instrumentation Cyber Security”

Meng-Shiun Tsai

The Cybersecurity Functions that an Instrument Should Possess from the Perspective of IEC 62443

Wei-Chen Lee

Manufacturing is currently the most attacked industry. In the manufacturing industry, various instruments, different legacy communication protocols, and a lack of OT cybersecurity expert have generated many vulnerabilities. How to objectively assess the cybersecurity attributes that instruments should have became an essential issue. This paper aims to use the internationally recognized OT cybersecurity standard IEC 62443-4-2 to discuss the cybersecurity attributes that instruments should have. Requirements are applied to instruments to discuss the detailed specifications under these seven fundamental requirements in IEC 62443-4-2.

Information Security System Architecture Design of the Micro-isolation Field with the Expandable of the Semiconductor Manufacturing Processes Obeying the IT and OT Information Security Standards

Jia-Syun Cai, Kuen-Yu Tsai, Hsing-Chung Chen, Min-Ju Chuang, Chien-Lin Lee

Information technology (IT) focuses on the general aspects of computers and networks. It is different from operational technology (OT), which focuses on the operation and program control aspects of the industrial control system (ICS). Once OT equipment is connected to the Internet, the OT field will face the same information security issues as IT. Therefore, it is necessary to have a network security function with the overall consideration of both IT and OT to ensure the safety and accuracy of the semiconductor key process and environmental parameter data. This article briefly introduces an ongoing research on an IT-OT micro-isolation field cybersecurity protection framework that uses portable antivirus tools and intrusion prevention systems for malware scanning and network access control to prevent attackers from accessing critical process parameters in the field. The related international information security standards (such as IEC 62443 and SEMI E187) will be incorporated to facilitate information security protection in the semiconductor manufacturing facilities.

The Study of Key Information Security Techniques and of Offensive and Defensive Verifications on Intelligent IoT Cloud-edge Computing Platform and Heterogamous Manufacturing Equipment

Yen-Lin Chen, Shih-Hsuan Yang, Chin-Sheng Chen, Chao-Ching Ho, Chih-Jer Lin, JengHaur Wang, Shih-Feng Tseng, Shih-Hao Chang, Chia-Ming Liu, Chao-Wei Yu

This study takes the manufacturing field in the development context of Industry 4.0 as an example and integrates key points in IEC62443 standards. We plan to build up a smart factory based on a smart-motor-electrical platform which takes the possible security incidents in the factory as a practical example and adopt the smart manufacturing factory of National Taipei University of Technology as a POC site for offensive and defensive verification on information security issues and gets the IEC62443-2-4 certification. The study includes three overall research goals: “IT-application layer”, “CT transmission layer”, and “OT-aware layer”. This plan expects that the sensor machine inductive sensing "OT-sensing layer” will capture and integrate the operation information as well as production data of the factory production line, then is realized through the “CT transmission layer” gateway according to obtained data. The heterogeneous network uploads data to the “Edge” end of the “OT-sensing layer” for preliminary learning, analysis and control. The “edge” end mainly works with the image and sensor information obtained through the “OTsensing layer” equipment. In addition, the proposed system will perform data label identification and analysis calculations, and then transmit the analyzed model to the fog terminal platform in the “IT-application layer” area through high-efficiency encryption and encoding. When the “Fog End” collects the data, it will conduct further learning and integration then derive the AI decisionmaking analytics. Because the manufacturing data is very precious, in the information security part, this plan will apply chaotic encryption algorithms, 3DES and the Transport Layer security (TLS) to ensure the security of data transmission and prevent eavesdropping and tampering when exchanging data. Finally, the model and decision after the analysis and learning of the “fog end” which will be updated and strengthened with the “OT-sensing layer” for the identification model and AI decision model. The relevant control commands will be sent to the “physical” device for relevant control. The correction of the data makes the production line optimized and most efficient, which means that the “IT-application layer”, “CT transmission layer”, and “OT-sensing layer” become a perfect cooperated intelligent electrical security system.

Malware Detection Mechanisms for Industrial Automation and Control Systems Based on API Analysis and Deep Learning

Iuon-Chang Lin, Yi-Kai Ma

With the rapid development of smart manufacturing applications, intelligence also brings some potential security risks, such as industrial automation and control equipment being threatened by malicious software such as ransomware. Therefore, the endpoint defense mechanism of the industrial control field has become an important key to ensure the reliable operation of the industrial control field. This paper will propose a malware detection mechanism for endpoint protection in the smart manufacturing field. We extract the system API call sequence of the software through the sandbox environment and find out the potential relationship before and after the sequence. Then use deep learning to build a malware detection model. This mechanism can prevent malicious programs from evading detection through variants, and effectively reduce the threat to the security of endpoint devices in the smart manufacturing field.

Study on Smart Manufacturing System with Industrial Control Information Security

Her-Terng Yau, Ping-Huan Kuo, Po-Yang Lai

The research results mainly focus on the combination of information security construction and smart manufacturing. The smart manufacturing technology in this study includes tool wear prediction and chatter recognition and uses machine learning and data analysis to achieve higher processing accuracy and data prediction. Using the perspective of network protection, build a set of information security frameworks, establish a protection system including VPN, firewall, server for data processing and other multi-layer protection mechanisms, and monitor data flow. Through the account, system, communication, integrated information flow, etc., research technologies and mechanisms such as protection and vulnerability scanning, import information and communication data package analysis, and gradually explore advanced technologies related to smart production lines, from traditional methods to the latest machine learning and deep learning. Information security technology uses information security testing methods such as vulnerability scanning and processing quality, to verify the correctness and safety of various information security algorithms developed by the production line.

Applying IT/OT Information Security Technology and International Standards to Aerospace Optical Components Production Line

Chien-Yao Huang, Wen-Tse Hsiao, Vipin Ting, Wan-Yi Hou, Jung-Hsing Wang, Hui-Jean Kuo, Hsiao-Yu Chou, Chung-Ying Wang, Yu-Wei Lin, Fong-Zhi Chen

Taiwan Instrument Research Institute (TIRI) of National Applied Research Laboratories is an important base for fabricating large aerospace optical components, introduced intelligent manufacturing technologies, systems, and information security technologies for pursuing higher optical quality components. TIRI also receives IEC 62443-2-4 certification, the international cyber security standards. This article introduces the application results of intelligent technologies, as well as cyber security standards commonly used in manufacturing and semiconductor fields. The implement information security protection technology applications in information technology and operational technology fields are also described in this article.


Applications of Self-powered Module on Wound Healing and Wound Monitoring

Jui-Han Yu, I-Ting Chiang, Ching-Wen Wang, Hsin-Ping Lin, Wen-Jian Chen, Zong-Hong Lin

Self-powered technology is becoming increasingly important with the miniaturization of wearable medical devices and the increased demand for remote healthcare. Through collecting the mechanical energy generated by the body, the self-powered technique can convert it into the energy that can be used by wearable systems, and offers new ideas in solving the problem of power source. For acute and chronic wounds, the wound treatment and repairment are becoming challenging because conventional dressings are no longer sufficient to meet current needs. The Triboelectric Nanogenerator (TENG), a self-powered method, can provide the appropriate electrical stimulation, and the wound healing can be accelerated from the smart dressing we developed in 2022. In addition, the wound healing level can be transmitted to the cell phone through the system, which provides data for the users to achieve real-time wound monitoring. through this smart electroactive dressing. In 2021, we found that the new application of thermoelectric catalyst (Bi2Te3) in antibacterial. By doping these thermoelectric materials, this dressing can also inhibit the bacterial growth in the wound, then we developed a multifunctional dressing for active infection prevention and accelerated wound healing this year. With the development of the self-powered technique, this module can be applied not only in regenerative medicine for electrical stimulation repairment, but also in preventive medicine for healthcare.